The Return of Gentoo

About nine months ago I wrote a post title The End of Gentoo. At the time, the article mostly echoed my growing frustrations with the lack of maintainer support for the vast collection of software in Portage, Gentoo’s repository and package management subsystem. Although the gentoo-server mailing list has all but dried up, gentoo-user has seen a marked increase in activity. Whether seasonal or otherwise, I think it’s a positive sign.

Another positive sign that comes to mind is the increased frequency and speed with which package maintainers have been pushing stable (and sometimes unstable) package versions out the door. For example, I was surprised to discover that MongoDB exists in Gentoo at version 1.8.2 as of this writing, which is conveniently the same version in FreeBSD’s ports collection. Ubuntu is decidedly behind the curve, holding in at around version 1.4.x. Of course, with sufficient digging, you can find prebuilt .debs of 1.8.3, or you can always fall back on building from source. Then again, I’m somewhat torn with regards to this: Sure, it brings back memories of earlier days when I often had to build packages by hand just to apply security fixes or obtain new versions, but I also wonder what the value is to it. After all, if I abandoned Gentoo to avoid the nightmare of compile-wait-restart, what’s the point if I leap over to another distribution that is forcing me to do exactly the same thing (except with less automation)?

Given the nature of work and my current projects, I’ve discovered that Gentoo suits my needs best. I can obtain fairly new versions of packages with some degree of customization without the need to manually run the ./configure && make && make install cycle by hand. Downgrading is also fairly easy, provided it doesn’t affect too many packages. However, I’ve found that eselect for those packages it supports can be an exceedingly welcome tool in the developer’s arsenal. I may not use it with any degree of regularity, but the option of setting the system default of a specific package to one version or another is appealing. I suspect this will be mostly useful for any Python-based tools I write in the near future, particularly given the split that is currently underway between 2.x and 3.x, but eselect also works with a handful of other systems that exhibit some degree of change between versions, including PostgreSQL and Boost.

But, I confess that none of this really influences my motivation for writing this post. Well, with the exception of V8 and MongoDB.

I think that much of my decision revolves around familiarity and maybe, if I were to make something of a stretch, annoyance. Ubuntu on the desktop looks absolutely beautiful. I love it. I really do. But the moment you dare to venture beyond the official packages it shipped with (think instant messengers), you begin to encounter various bits of weirdness that fester into a sore. Ubuntu has a great community of developers and supporters, but sometimes more peculiar problems are harder to find via search simply because of the noise level generated by its popularity. There’s nothing wrong with that–in fact, that’s an excellent problem for a distribution to have–but for unusual issues, it often makes finding the answer an uphill battle that is difficult to win without some patience. Add this to the abomination that is NetworkManager (installed and enabled by default), the excessively annoying network configuration borrowed from Debian, and whatever blasphemous modifications have been made to sysvinit, and one starts to see a pattern that makes this distribution more than a little tiring to those who simply wanted something that Just Worked.

It’s ironic in a way. I read an article a couple of weeks ago praising Linux Mint for many of these same reasons that Ubuntu seems deficient. Perhaps I should give it a try…

Yet time and again, I find myself drawn to Gentoo. It’s a rough distribution to maintain. It has many sharp edges. It’s not exceptionally good for use on a server where security updates may need to be applied from upstream regularly. It’s not even really that great for low powered desktops (try compiling Xorg and the desktop manager of your choice on a Netbook without distcc or cross-compilation on another system and then get back with me). Time and again, Gentoo lures me in. Why? Well, I’m starting to think that the answer is more complicated than simply “familiarity.” Perhaps I should take back what I said earlier.

About 8 or 9 years ago, I started toying around with a handful of Linux distributions. The only *nix-based systems I knew at the time were FreeBSD and OpenBSD; I had no idea what Linux really was, why there was such a significant chasm between the userland and kernel, or even really what the differences were between distributions. Superficially, I just assumed that the init systems were largely identical, and individual distributions simply customized various subsystems here and there. I had no idea that the world of Linux was vastly different from that of FreeBSD. In the latter, kernel and userland development is largely one and the same. FreeBSD is the kernel. It’s also the world. From init to various userland tools (yes, even ls) to device drivers (oh fxp0, how I miss you), development continued as a part of a single cohesive continuum. Little did I know, the Linux world is almost the polar opposite of that.

I was introduced to Gentoo by my friend John G. who suggested it as a more “BSD-like” distribution of Linux. He was right–everything about Gentoo seemed to be a GNU-derived analog of the BSD world with the one exception that it was decidedly Linux-flavored. But the most important lesson I took from Gentoo was that of how an operating system is put together–from scratch, but with training wheels. Sure, I knew all of the basic steps: There’s the file system, the kernel, the userland tools, and then there’s various odds and ends here and there that are glued in place to make life easier (or more miserable). In some ways, it’s almost a surprise any of this actually works as well as it does.

Yet I think it was that experience with Gentoo that won my heart. Not only do you have to partition the file systems yourself, but you have to effectively bootstrap the entire system from a live CD (or other Linux distribution), prepare it, and configure it, but you also have to build the kernel and all of the utilities yourself. To this end, I think Gentoo should be a required topic in any operating system course in every CS program at all universities. It’s like Linux From Scratch set to super-easy-mode. It’s no surprise then that any time I want to learn anything new, the best way for me is to pick it up under Gentoo and play with it.

And let’s be honest, Gentoo probably has one of the very best network configuration systems in the Linux world. It better–because it’s the kindred spirit of FreeBSD’s network configuration via rc.conf, except that it’s not. Well, not completely.

This isn’t to say that Gentoo is all sunshine and roses. It certainly does have more than its fair share of sharp edges. I recently reinstalled it on my desktop (no, I still have my Ubuntu install) only to discover that it still takes the better part of a weekend (and then some) to configure, build, and find everything you want, get things situated exactly right, and then discover that there’s one or two minor annoyances still eating away at you. For me, those annoyances are font-related, but I suppose nothing’s perfect. Ubuntu’s fonts are about as close to perfection as possible in the Linux world. Although, I admit that sound and sound support sucks badly in both. Oh, and don’t get me started on media players. I spent most of my free time this week messing around with the damned things only to discover that nearly every single one available is absolutely terrible. I miss Amarock 1.4. They had a good thing going…

The most important lesson I’ve taken from the time period between now and the time I wrote that fairly anti-Gentoo rant is something worth repeating: Nothing perfect. No distribution is perfect, no one distribution will do everything you want, and compromise is always a necessity. I still like Ubuntu for its aesthetics, but Gentoo is still the most appropriate solution for a general purpose workstation. I guess some things never really do change.

So, lesson learned: Rants are stupid. The future you is always the wisest. Sometimes you look back on what you wrote and wonder what the hell you were thinking. Long live Gentoo!

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Gnome Sudo in Gentoo

Having gotten used to the sudo-like interface presented in Ubuntu for most user-facing operations that require root access, the sudden lack of such convenience in Gentoo was grating. Fortunately, the solution is fairly easy, even if it isn’t mentioned anywhere that can be found by a cursory Google search. (I’m sure there’s an entry on the Gentoo forums, but let’s face it–for most people, if Google can’t find it, it doesn’t exist.)

The solution: Run gconf-editor, browse to apps/gksu, and then tick sudo-mode. That’s it!

Slightly longer answer: After wasting about 5 minutes searching for the answer, I found the solution in the man page for gksu which pointed to the gconf setting above.

You may have also noticed from this post that I’ve mentioned Gentoo for the first time in a while. There are a few reasons for this–which I’ll save for future posts–but it’s largely because of various irritations I’ve found with running Ubuntu for a while. Don’t worry, I’ll make an honest effort to share my rationale with you.

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The End of Gentoo

Gentoo’s dead.

Before I hear you say “Long live Gentoo!” I should add that, yes, I know it has an active supporting community. Certainly there are other forks of Gentoo (Sabayon and Funtoo among the most well known of these) that contribute fixes upstream. There’s even a lively community discussing things on the gentoo-dev list. There’s also a lot of good, clever and very smart individuals working on Gentoo from around the world. I envy each and every one of them and admire their dedication and their technical capabilities and contributions.

For me, however, Gentoo is dying on the vine. It will continue to live on for others–there’s plenty of dedicated souls who are more than willing to support it, run it on their servers, home computers, and suffer through another rough period in Gentoo’s colorful history–but my days of running Gentoo are coming to an end. Why? Because I feel that:

  • It lacks clear direction
  • Recent security-related issues are a concern
  • Package support and maintainers are dwindling in number
  • Changing personal preferences

Clear Direction?

Does Gentoo have a clear direction? I think so–or I used to. When the maintainer of OpenRC left to move on to bigger and better things, a lengthy discussion took place, and unsurprisingly, some individuals were calling out for Gentoo to follow suit with other distros to use other init systems. Fortunately, I think the conclusion at the end was that OpenRC will still have a home with Gentoo, and it will be moved (or moved back) into being an in-house project. The discussion does raise some red flags, and I sincerely hope Gentoo doesn’t change toward adopting init systems that go against the spirit of the distribution. Personally, I liked OpenRC–it was fast, it showed a great deal of promise, and that there are forces within the community that would rather move toward a more mainstream (and bloated) init system is worrisome. I’m not sure that sentiment is shared with the majority of developers (I hope not), but that this is even a concern is troubling because I do not want to migrate my systems to one or more different init systems over the next year or two.

I think it’s also fair to deduce that Gentoo no longer pushes updates as frequently as other distributions. This isn’t necessarily a bad thing–and some might argue that it’s a sign of maturity–but it does call into question whether or not certain critical security patches will ever be rolled out relatively quickly. Moreover, many languages, libraries, and other developer-centric tools aren’t being included or updated as frequently as other distributions. Updates, if available, seem to stagnate in ~arch for an eternity before they’re deemed suitable for general availability. While I don’t want Gentoo to become yet another Debian or Ubuntu, subsequently pushing out moderately unstable software in effort to stay on the bleeding edge, I would have appreciated the integration of some established tools–like PHP 5.3–sooner. PHP 5.3 wasn’t introduced into portage until May of 2010 at version 5.3.2, and I think this sort of delay is endemic to a good chunk of the system. That’s to say nothing about how long it took to adopt Python version 2.5 several years ago, mostly thanks to Portage’s dependency on Python, but at least Python 3 has been available in parallel with Python 2 for quite some time. Other software isn’t so lucky.

Security

Years ago, Gentoo used to push updates to various critical components like glibc often enough to coin the joke “I’m sorry I can’t go out tonight, I’m having to recompile my kernel again.” Unfortunately and for various reasons, the security team has been stretched to the point that critical vulnerabilities have gone untouched for an undesirably long time. This isn’t the fault of Gentoo, nor is it the fault of anyone in particular. As Tobias Heinlein stated on the mailing list:

The Gentoo Security team is functional, but running on low flame. There is a huge backlog (a huge amount of open bugs and GLSAs that still need to be sent) and due to a small amount of active members not all bugs are filed/handled in a timely manner and bigger packages (Firefox, Java, etc.) are not easy to draft GLSAs for for various reasons.

There’s just too much work to do and too few hands to do it. It certainly explains the IA32 emulation issue on 64-bit multilib builds, and it possibly explains why advisories like this one were delivered an uncomfortably long time after the exploits were discovered. Of course, patches are no replacement for end-user security as, ultimately, security rests on the shoulders of the systems administrator.

There is a silver lining. In spite of Gentoo’s recent lapse with pushing updates, they have still managed to beat both Microsoft and Adobe in terms of patch turn around and deployment.

Package Support

Whether or not Gentoo is currently hemorrhaging developers is something of a rumor. I don’t think it is. I do think that the current economy has put unwanted constraints on individual contributors who have already been constrained by time; that’s expected. Every distribution sees a slow turn over rate for developers, and I think Gentoo is in that phase where the number of developers leaving is somewhat greater than the number of new developers taking their place. I deduce this mostly by anecdotal evidence. Also, things like the following don’t help either (this is a comparison between several major players in the F/OSS OS market):

Gentoo:

[sagittarius:~]$ emerge --search yui
Searching...
[ Results for search key : yui ]
[ Applications found : 0 ]

Ubuntu 10.10 (server)

[corvus:~]$ aptitude search yui
p   libjs-yui                                                             - Yahoo User Interface Library
p   libjs-yui-doc                                                         - Documentation and examples for the Yahoo User Interface Library
p   yui-compressor                                                        - JavaScript/CSS minifier

FreeBSD 8.1

[exfar:~]$ portsearch -n yui
Port:   yui-3.2.04_2
Path:   /usr/ports/editors/yui
Info:   Rich-featured multi-windows console text editor
Maint:  citycat4@ngs.ru
B-deps: autoconf-2.67 autoconf-wrapper-20071109 m4-1.4.15,1 perl-5.10.1_2
R-deps:
WWW:
 
Port:   yuicompressor-2.4.2
Path:   /usr/ports/www/yuicompressor
Info:   The Yahoo! JavaScript and CSS Compressor
Maint:  skv@FreeBSD.org
B-deps:
R-deps: desktop-file-utils-0.15_2 gamin-0.1.10_4 gettext-0.18.1.1 gio-fam-backend-2.24.2 glib-2.24.2 inputproto-2.0 javavmwrapper-2.3.5 jdk-1.6.0.3p4_18 kbproto-1.0.4 libX11-1.3.3_1,1 libXau-1.0.5 libXdmcp-1.0.3 libXext-1.1.1,1 libXi-1.3,1 libXtst-1.1.0 libiconv-1.13.1_1 libpthread-stubs-0.3_3 libxcb-1.7 pcre-8.10 perl-5.10.1_2 pkg-config-0.25_1 python26-2.6.6 recordproto-1.14 xextproto-7.1.1 xproto-7.0.16
WWW:    http://developer.yahoo.com/yui/compressor/
 
2 ports

There are comparisons like this all across the board. It holds true for the YUI libraries, for the Spring framework, and a handful of other minor packages here and there that I’ve run into over the last year and a half. It should be noted that there were three reasons I migrated from FreeBSD to Gentoo some 5-6 years ago: 1) the ports collection wasn’t being updated as frequently as I would have liked, 2) the ports collection often didn’t have packages I needed or wanted, and 3) FreeBSD (-release–I don’t know about –current or –stable from the time period) did not easily support the new printer I had purchased whereas Gentoo did. Oh, how the tables turn.

Now, it should be stated that missing packages aren’t the end of the world. One can easily go search for the latest version, find it, and install it. That’s not the problem. The problem is that as I’ve gotten older (lazier) and more time constrained (impatient), I like to spend less and less time hunting down sundry packages and more time actually doing things. Package managers are the path of least resistance, and as long as they make something easier to do, I’m going to use them. ./configure && make && make install was fun when I was 20. I’m now 29 and have a gazillion different hobbies in addition to paid labor (usually writing code but mostly dealing with data migration and the sorts). I don’t want to have to fool around with some inane package manager any more than necessary (although I do like Portage). Which brings me to…

Personal Preference

This is the one point no one is going to be able to argue with. Gentoo is a labor of love. I used to enjoy having authoritarian control over every little package on the system. It was fantastic building a new install and having only those packages I wanted (and their dependencies) and nothing else. Nowdays, any time I run an:

# emerge -pvu world # or system

…and see more than 30 packages listed, I breathe a sigh of frustration. I used Gentoo as my primary desktop OS for about 2 years between 2006 and 2008, so I know how long it takes to build X, build KDE, and build the various silly libraries needed to support each of them (and whatever else I wanted). In fact, I still have that particular installation of Gentoo sitting on my other drive at home. Ever since I took a .NET class during my last year of college, I realized that sometimes it’s better to get things done than it is to sit, twiddling my thumbs, waiting for that overnight build to finish so I can check e-mail. (Then getting frustrated and turning on my laptop or cancelling the build and booting to Windows.) Granted, I always loved having two disparate operating systems on the same machine: If one failed for whatever reason (Windows), I could boot to Gentoo and still get stuff done. Anymore, though, I’m rather wishing I had installed Ubuntu in place of Gentoo. If I had a nickle for every hour I spent waiting for various window manager breaking emerges to finish…

Crux of the Matter

The crux of this entire long winded post is that I’m getting really damn frustrated with Gentoo. I love the operating system. I’ve used it for years. (Side note and minor correction: I actually first used Gentoo in late 2003/early 2004, but I don’t count those because my home server was still running FreeBSD.) I want to continue using it, but I’m afraid my patience is wearing thin. I seem to remember that a particular friend of mine Tweeted about dumping Gentoo for the U-word earlier this year. I hate to say it, but I’m afraid I’m going to follow suit. “Enter Ubuntu,” as he said. Enter Ubuntu indeed.

And to think: I hate Debian with a passion. I guess there are other BSD-ish options, although I do seem to see VirtualBox OSE in the FreeBSD ports collection… Tempting!

Update July 24th, 2011

Gentoo’s not dead! Rather, that is for me it isn’t. This entire post should have been taken with a grain of salt, but I’ll explain in depth later this week why I feel that this post was not only entirely unfair, but also why I feel that Gentoo has redeemed itself, and why I believe competition is important (or more to the point: why sampling the competition is important).

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